... Though female entrepreneurship in the informal sector concentrates around small size and low growth activities, it provides the opportunity to earn money which further strengthens women's economic status and ultimately women empowerment (Welter and Smallbone, 2008 ). Moreover, evidence shows that about half of females engaged in self-employment/microentrepreneurship take it as part-time activity and operated within home (Thompson et al. 2009) that provide them work flexibility to mitigate the household responsibilities (Duberley and Carrigan 2013 ). Thus selfemployment/micro-entrepreneurship in the non-farm informal sector may be portrayed in substituting such parttime employment (Georgellis and Wall 2005; Saridakis et al. 2014) and it can be possible to witness a reverse scenario that female may be more interested than male to engage in self-employment or micro-entrepreneurial activities in the female intensive sectors. ...
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... In terms of industry, there appears to be some 2 concentration in business services (Soldressen et al. 1998; Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004), and several studies find home-based firms are started with low levels of initial capitalisation (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Thompson et al. 2009). Home-based business are also said to have lower growth ambitions than other firms and are likely to have few or no employees (Thompson et al. 2009; Newbery & Bosworth 2010). There is much assertion throughout the limited literature that motivations for starting home-based bsuinesses are based on the flexibility they afford in terms of work-life balance (Baines & Gelder 2003; Thompson et al. 2009), including balancing work and domestic commitments, often cited as particularly suited to working mothers (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Ekinsmyth 2011). ...

Les femmes et l'entrepreneuriat depuis chez soiTémoignage du Royaume-Uni Piers Thompson Institut de l'Université du pays de Galles, Cardiff, R.-U. Dylan Jones-Evans Université du pays de Galles, R.-U. Caleb Kwong Université d'Essex, R.-U. Pour la femme, le fait de posséder et de gérer sa propre entreprise à partir de chez soi peut lui offrir la possibilité d'assumer ses devoirs familiaux et de pouvoir travailler, bien que potentiellement aux dépens du rendement et de l'essor de l'entreprise. S'appuyant sur des informations émanant de l'enquête GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor — Moniteur de l'entrepreneuriat mondial), cette note de recherche analyse les caractéristiques des femmes travaillant à leur compte à partir de chez elles. Les résultats, auxquels est parvenue cette étude, indiquent qu'une grande proportion de femmes disposant de ressources entrepreneuriales modestes a davantage tendance à diriger leurs activités de chez elles, suggérant que cette décision a un caractère circonstanciel. L'étude indique en outre que ce type d'activités est probablement géré sur une base à temps partiel, — facteur qui contribue davantage à la marginalisation de ces femmes.
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... In fact, some employees who work most of their time from home are paid low wages although there are also high earners among this group of workers (Felstead et al., 2002). For the self-employed, there is good evidence of the low earnings of homeworking women compared to self-employed women for whom most of the activity is performed outside of their homes, while no penalty of homeworking on earnings among self-employed men could be found (Simon and McDonald Way, 2015; see also Thompson et al., 2009). ...

Any ideas for me? Am disabled physically/mentally …I had a side job stuffing envelopes..My boss was so thrilled with me and my partner he fired a bunch of workers as we could pull off the bulk of his work!…We got paid well when the economy went upside down we noticed our pay decreased but still made enough to pay 3 house bills. Since about 6 months ago my boss I think lost his house …I remeber his last visit he was so stressed saying he almost had 2 foreclose emergencies:(


... A more recent study by Tlaiss (2013) finds that rather than either push or pull motivational factors, women entrepreneurs demonstrate a complex interplay of both types of motivation. Other gendered aspects include lifestyle strategies for balancing work and home-life (Breen, 2009/10; Philipps, 2008; Duberley and Carrigan, 2013), feelings of isolation (Greenhaus et al., 2003; Thompson et al., 2009), attitudes to IT (Ndubisi, 2008) and attitudes to growth (Ehlers and Main, 1998; Breen and Karanasios, 2010; Redmond and Walker, 2009/10). We suggest that many of the contradictions of gendered aspects arise from the confounding of different types of home-based business, and would encourage researchers to focus on particular business types, such as our focus on home-based online businesses and the development of the detailed typology shown in Table 1We also suggest that the ease of experimentation offered by the online environment provides an explanation for the low levels of self-efficacy we identified. ...


... Meanwhile, researchers have reached different results on the growth of women's HBBs. Some studies have found these kinds of businesses weak and with very limited motivation and potential for growth (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004; Thompson et al., 2009). Yet, most studies conducted on women's HBBs have proved that they are completely serious and are growing across all sectors (Breen, 2010; Breen and Karanasios, 2010; Wynarczyk and Graham, 2013;Clark and Douglas, 2014;Modarresi et al., 2016b). ...
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